today we meet together


some of my friends met with me at muktijoddha market today.i bought my CPU for repairing.we chatted long time in the market.lastly my friend samrat grew angry with tariq.samrat dont be angry its just a fun

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roAd Accident in BD


roAd Accident hAppened on Airport roAd yesterdAy. img' protomAlo

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todAy i feel bored


i went with sister teAchers home with her.but he wAs not present in the home.merely we go there by rickshAw,spending 30 tk.r♠5ther thAn he cAn cAll us thAt todAy i willnot teAch you

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The Growth Story of Jamuna Group


1974 : The Group came into being.

Mr.M.Nurul Islam, the architect of the Group, took up the challenge of bringing necessary technologies to Bangladeshi companies aiming to offset the bulk of foreign imports. His bold entrepreneurial spirit, progressive ideas and untiring efforts along with the devoted services of his colleagues, laid the strong foundation for success and future developments.

1975 :The first flagship enterprise of the Group, Jamuna Electric Manufacturing Co. Ltd. started operation. It pioneered the manufacturing of electrical accessories and fittings in Bangladesh. It is also producing PVC-compound and pipes.

1978 :Jamuna Electric & Engineering Industries Ltd. was established to produce ceiling fans, exhaust fans and ballasts.

1980 :Jamuna stepped into domestic production of high and low voltage cabbies and conductors though the inception of Jamuna Cables & rubber Industries.

1982 :Jamuna Wires was established to produce super enameled copper wires.

1988 :Jamuna Distillery Ltd. was launched for preparation of industrial and pharma alcohol, thereby making the Group’s entry into the chemical sector of the country. Presently, Jamuna Distillery Ltd. claims wide expertise in the chemical sector.

1992 : The Group entered into the footwear industry with Pegasus Shoes Ltd. Product line of the company includes leather shoes, sports shoes, sandals and sneakers. With a view to provide boost to the local shoe industry and meet external demand of leather, Pegasus Leather Processing Unit was set up for producing finished leathers from natural crust leathers.

Jamuna Knitting & Dyeing Ltd. made its entry into the textiles sector as a Composite Unit with knit fabrics, dyeing, finishing, printing and ready made garments.
Jamuna Welding Electrode Ltd. started production of are welding electrodes.
Rubicon Advertising was launched for nationwide advertising in different media to support its own brands and to service outside organizations as well.

1993 :The Group started its most ambitious venture in the cosmetics industry with Aromatic Cosmetics Ltd. which produces cosmetics and toiletries under the `Aromatic’ brand name.

1996 :Establishment of Shameem Spinning Mills Ltd. for production of knit yarn opened a new frontier in the textile technology for the Group.

1997 :Pegasus Leathers Ltd. was set up for production of PVC and PU coated synthetic leather.

1998 : Shameem composite Mills Ltd. came into being to produce ring spun yarn.

1999 :Jamuna Printing & Publishing Ltd. made its entry into publication sector by publishing The Daily Jugantor in 2000
The Group’s housing venture started with Jamuna Builders Ltd. which has already given shape to the project of building Asia’s biggest shopping and commercial complex-Jamuna Future Park, developing a large residential township-New Uttara Model Town, and a mega real estate venture-Jamuna City.

2000 :Production of open-end yarn started through the establishment of Shameem Rotor Spinning Ltd.

2002 :Jamuna Media Ltd. was set up and entrusted with the sales and distribution of The Daily Jugantor. The newspaper having thus emerged, soon managed to attract wide readership throughout the country. It is printed and published by Jamuna Printing & Publishing Ltd.
Jamuna Spinning Mills Ltd. was established to produce ring spun yarn.
Shameem Garments Ltd. was set up for production of export oriented ready made garments.
Jamuna Television Ltd. was formed to operate a terrestrial and satellite TV channel.

2004 : Crown Beverage Ltd. was set up for production of non-alcoholic malt beverage and drinks.

2005 :Jamuna Denims Ltd. (Weaving Unit) came into being as a Composite Unit for production of open-end yarn, denim fabrics and ready made garments.

2006 : Jamuna Denims Ltd. (Garments Unit) came into being as a Garments Unit for production of ready made garments

Mr.M.Nurul Islam, the architect of the Group, took up the challenge of bringing necessary technologies to Bangladeshi companies aiming to offset the bulk of foreign imports. His bold entrepreneurial spirit, progressive ideas and untiring efforts along with the devoted services of his colleagues, laid the strong foundation for success and future developments.

1975 :The first flagship enterprise of the Group, Jamuna Electric Manufacturing Co. Ltd. started operation. It pioneered the manufacturing of electrical accessories and fittings in Bangladesh. It is also producing PVC-compound and pipes.

1978 :Jamuna Electric & Engineering Industries Ltd. was established to produce ceiling fans, exhaust fans and ballasts.

1980 :Jamuna stepped into domestic production of high and low voltage cabbies and conductors though the inception of Jamuna Cables & rubber Industries.

1982 :Jamuna Wires was established to produce super enameled copper wires.

1988 :Jamuna Distillery Ltd. was launched for preparation of industrial and pharma alcohol, thereby making the Group’s entry into the chemical sector of the country. Presently, Jamuna Distillery Ltd. claims wide expertise in the chemical sector.

1992 : The Group entered into the footwear industry with Pegasus Shoes Ltd. Product line of the company includes leather shoes, sports shoes, sandals and sneakers. With a view to provide boost to the local shoe industry and meet external demand of leather, Pegasus Leather Processing Unit was set up for producing finished leathers from natural crust leathers.

Jamuna Knitting & Dyeing Ltd. made its entry into the textiles sector as a Composite Unit with knit fabrics, dyeing, finishing, printing and ready made garments.
Jamuna Welding Electrode Ltd. started production of are welding electrodes.
Rubicon Advertising was launched for nationwide advertising in different media to support its own brands and to service outside organizations as well.

1993 :The Group started its most ambitious venture in the cosmetics industry with Aromatic Cosmetics Ltd. which produces cosmetics and toiletries under the `Aromatic’ brand name.

1996 :Establishment of Shameem Spinning Mills Ltd. for production of knit yarn opened a new frontier in the textile technology for the Group.

1997 :Pegasus Leathers Ltd. was set up for production of PVC and PU coated synthetic leather.

1998 : Shameem composite Mills Ltd. came into being to produce ring spun yarn.

1999 :Jamuna Printing & Publishing Ltd. made its entry into publication sector by publishing The Daily Jugantor in 2000
The Group’s housing venture started with Jamuna Builders Ltd. which has already given shape to the project of building Asia’s biggest shopping and commercial complex-Jamuna Future Park, developing a large residential township-New Uttara Model Town, and a mega real estate venture-Jamuna City.

2000 :Production of open-end yarn started through the establishment of Shameem Rotor Spinning Ltd.

2002 :Jamuna Media Ltd. was set up and entrusted with the sales and distribution of The Daily Jugantor. The newspaper having thus emerged, soon managed to attract wide readership throughout the country. It is printed and published by Jamuna Printing & Publishing Ltd.
Jamuna Spinning Mills Ltd. was established to produce ring spun yarn.
Shameem Garments Ltd. was set up for production of export oriented ready made garments.
Jamuna Television Ltd. was formed to operate a terrestrial and satellite TV channel.

2004 : Crown Beverage Ltd. was set up for production of non-alcoholic malt beverage and drinks.

2005 :Jamuna Denims Ltd. (Weaving Unit) came into being as a Composite Unit for production of open-end yarn, denim fabrics and ready made garments.

2006 : Jamuna Denims Ltd. (Garments Unit) came into being as a Garments Unit for production of ready made garments

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Biman Bangladesh Airlines Limited


Biman Bangladesh Airlines Limited
was founded as the national flag
With legacy networks and increasing
In line with its restructuring plans,
carrier in 1972, immediately following
local market competition, Biman
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Limited
the country’s independence, and
needed to restructure and transform
engaged SITA Professional Services to
remained wholly government-owned
itself into an effective, modern,
help ensure its IT and Communications
until July 2007, when it was
competitive airline.
strategy would stay closely aligned to
transformed into Bangladesh’s largest
its business strategy, supporting both
“The immediate short term goal of this
public limited company.
the new corporate entity and Biman’s
restructuring process is to allow Biman
future business vision.
Since then, Biman Bangladesh Airlines
to address the identified critical
Limited has focused its efforts on
business issues of scheduling
The specific consulting activities
reducing costs and modernizing its
performance and fleet capacity,” says
offered – using a hybrid model of SITA
fleet, with the goal of re-establishing70-80%, reducing our reliance on

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About PCB fAbricAtion


The passive lumped circuit elements (i.e. resistors, capacitors and inductors) and the
active devices (i.e. diodes, transistors, FETs, UJTs, ICs etc.) are assembled on an insulated
board commonly known as printed circuit board or PCB. This board has a thin layer of copper
(copper cladding) on one side. Sometimes copper cladding on both sides is also used. By
having copper removed from the undesired areas it is possible to connect the different legs of
the devices and elements in a compact manner. When properly soldered with the legs of these
devices and circuit elements the copper cladding gives support to this components. Here the
process of fabricating a PCB board (basically removing copper from the undesired areas
according to a predetermined plan) is discussed briefly.

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Introduction to Radio Communication.


Introduction Radio communication was made by radio waves which are electromagnetic waves like light 10 waves. These radio waves travel in space with the speed of light which is 3×10 cm/s. The radio waves get attenuated or weakened as they travel out in space, partly due to the absorption of their energy by reflection and refraction in the ionosphere, partly by the ground and partly by other objects. The propagation characteristics of radio waves of different frequencies mainly decide the use to which these waves can be put to for communication purposes. Radio waves are accordingly been divided into various categories or classes with regard to their frequencies and propagation characteristics.   Classification of radio waves and their propagation characteristics Class Frequency range Propagation characteristics and typical uses Very Low 10 to 30 kHz Low attenuation and propagation characteristics reliable all day – used for long distance Frequency (VLF) communication Low Frequency 30 to 300 kHz Day time absorption more than VLF – used for marine communication and navigation aids (LF) Medium 300 to 3000 kHz High attenuation during day and less attenuation at night – suitable for broadcasting and marine Frequency (MF) communication High Frequency 3 to 30 MHz Propagation characteristics vary with time of day, season and frequency – used for long distance (HF) communication Very High 30 to 300 MHz Line of sight propagation, not affected by ionosphere – used for television, FM transmission, Frequency (VHF) radar etc. Ultra High 300 to 3000 MHz Line of sight propagation – used for television and short distance communication Frequency (UHF) Super High 3000 to 30000 MHz The same as UHF Frequency (SHF)

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Study of Colour Television


Introduction: A colour picture is actually monochrome picture on a white raster but with colours added for the main parts of the scene. The required colour information is in the chrominance(C) signal broadcast with the monochrome signal in the standard 7 MHz TV broadcast channel. Practically all the colours can be produced as combinations of Red, Green and Blue – the three primary colours.

Colour Primaries: The colour TV system utilizes the red, green and blue (R, G, B) colour video signals corresponding to the colour information in the scene. Almost any colour can be produced from various combinations of these three basic colours. These three colours (R, G, B) are known as primary colours, because none of the three primary colours can be obtained by mixing the other two.

Additive Colour Mixtures: The three circles in red, green and blue overlap partially. Where the circles are superimposed, the colour shown is the mixture produced by adding the primary colours. At the centre all three colours circles overlap, resulting in white. The other three triangular lobes contain cyan, yellow and magenta produced from the mixture of blue (B) + green (G), (G +R) and (R +B) respectively in certain proportions. This process of colour mixing is known as additive colour mixing.

Complementary Colours: The colour that produces white light when it is added to a primary colour is called its compliment. For example yellow when added to blue, produces white light. Therefore, yellow is the compliment of green and red respectively.

Colour Video Voltage: In Fig. 6.2, three separate vidicon camera tubes are used for red, green and blue. These colours form the object are separated for the camera tubes by optical colour filters. A special type of mirror called ‘diachroic mirror’ the property of which is to reflect a specific colour and allow other spectral frequencies to pass through, is used in camera tube as shown in the figure. As a result, the output from camera tube1 is a red (R) video signal that contains information for only the red parts of the scene. Similarly tubes2 and 3 produce green (G) and blue (B) video signals.

Channel Bandwidth for Colour Transmission: In the channel bandwidth diagram as shown in Fig. 6.4, the frequency axis is scaled relative to the picture carrier which is marked as 0 MHz. This makes the diagram very informative, since details such as the widths of the upper and the lower sidebar is and the relative position of the sound carrier are easily read off.

The sound carrier is always positioned at the extremity of the fully radiated upper sideband and hence is 5.5 MHz away from the picture carrier. The FM sound signal frequencies have a frequency spectrum of about 75 KHz around the sound carrier. However a band of 0.25 MHz is allowed on the sound carrier side of the channel to allow for adequate inter-channel separation.

The narrow band chrominance (colour) signal is multiplexed with the wideband luminance (brightness) signal in the standard 7 MHz TV channel. This is achieved by modulating the colour signal with a carrier frequency which lies within the normal channel bandwidth. This is called the colour subcarrier frequency and is located towards the upper edge of the video frequencies to avoid interference with the monochrome signal.

Why it is called a subcarrier? Because it carries the colour information and at the same time it is carried by the channel picture carrier. So it is a carrier on a carrier.

In a PAL colour system the colour subcarrier frequency is located 4.43 MHz away from the picture carrier. The bandwidth of signals is restricted to about 1.2 MHz about the subcarrier Fig. 6.4. gives necessary details of the location of the monochrome (picture) colour and sound signal spectrums, all within the same channel bandwidth of 7 MHz.

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Comparison between public and private university


we can compare between public and private universities by considering the enjoyment facilities,educational environment, and expense.Public universities have more enjoyment facilities than private universities.They have the large campus so they can organize any function easily.Canteen facility one of reason for enjoyment.Students can share their feelings and discuss bout their study topics here easily.It have big field for playing.But public universities have less educational environment than than private universities.Laboratory facilities are not god at public universities,they have less book in the libraries.Most of the cases public universities have no credit transfer facilities at foreign countries.Political clash often delays educational year .One important feature at public universities that is it is not so much expensive.Public universities have less tution fees than private universities.Often students get scholarship from govt .Moreover it has hostel facility.On the other hand private universities have small campus ,so they can not arrange any program easily.Canteen facility also very limited at private universities.Most of the private universities have no playground .they have only indoor game facility .but educational facilities get most priority at private universities.Private universities have more books in the library.Laboratory facilities are very good at private universities.They have state of the art class room,internet facility and projector.One unique feature in private universities is credit transfer facility at foreign universities.There is no session jam or political clash at private universities.But private universities are expensive.Their tution fees are very high perspective to our living condition.Student does not get any scholarship from government .Most of the private universities have no residential facility.Both kind of universities have some good and bad qualities .But they play an important role to build up a educated nation and their main motto is “to provide quality education.”

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The Topic Sentence


The “topic sentence” is the sentence in which the main idea of the paragraph is stated.Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information. It is unquestionably the most important sentence in the paragraph.
The topic sentence generally is composed of two parts: (a) the topic itself and (b) the controlling idea.
The Topic
The topic is the subject of the paragraph. It is what the paragraph is all about. For example, in our sample paragraph ‘Smoking’ is the topic.
The Controlling Idea
The controlling idea is the point that you want to make about the topic. It guides the ideas provided throughout the paragraph and limits the scope of the paragraph. Here is an example of a topic sentence with a controlling idea:
Running provides many healthful benefits.
The topic of this topic sentence is running. The controlling idea is healthful benefits. That is, the reader knows from this sentence that the paragraph is generally about running. And the reader also knows that the point of the paragraph will be to enumerate the healthful benefits of running.
N.B: Before writing any essay or even a paragraph, it is important to think, first about the topic and then what you want to say about the topic. Most often, the topic is easy, but the question then turns to what you want to say about the topic which is the controlling idea.
A good topic sentence is specific and well focused, guiding the entire paragraph. A good topic sentence:
▲ Is specific. If the topic is too general (for example, I like camping.), the reader will not know what to expect in the paragraph.
▲ Is general enough to invite exploration of the topic. If the topic sentence is too specific (for example, Webster’s New World Dictionary has more than 40,000 words.), there will be nothing else to say on the subject.
▲ Is strong. Starting a topic sentence with there is/are (as in There are several ways to cook rice.) is a weak opener.
▲ Is not an announcement. A topic sentence should draw the reader into the paragraph. Announcements (like This paragraph will discuss how to build a bird house.) hold little attraction for readers.

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